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Signs of the Neanderthal Man (80,000 years ago) have been found in some caves in the surroundings of Montségur. The most significant presence belongs to the Middle Ages, even though it is possible that the impregnable fortress had already been used during Roman times. As a matter of fact, the name of the village clearly derives from the Latin mons securus, which means safe mountain. The village preserves the medieval structure, with steep narrow streets and stone houses. A small archaeological museum explains the village and castle’s history and their everyday life during the Middle Ages.